Five kills. Five kills! That’s what I saw on my safari to the Masai Mara - not to mention half a dozen other chases and one I missed when I needed to go to the toilet...!Read More
I get nervous before I go on photography trips. Part of that is just worrying about travel arrangements, visas and packing everything I need, but another part of it is worrying that I won't get the shots I want. Here are a few examples of 'the ones that got away'.
Before I went to the Taj Mahal, I was determined to get the classic 'Lady Diana' shot of the building from the end of the reflecting pools. That was the whole point of the trip, and I was really worried about it. I couldn't face the idea of screwing up what would probably be my only opportunity to visit the world's most famous building.
When I arrived in India on a G Adventures trip in November 2013, we went to the Taj Mahal early one morning, around 0530. We had to queue for a while and then go through security. At that point, I was about to rush off and take the shot I'd been dreaming about, but our tour leader then introduced us all to a local guide who was about to give us a 15-minute lecture about the building. What a nightmare! I knew that the whole place would be crawling with tourists if I didn't go and take the shot immediately, but it seemed a bit rude just to rush off without hearing the talk. In the end, I was too British about the whole thing and missed the shot of a lifetime. Too bad. On the plus side, I ended up with this image of the Taj Mahal.
It's the very opposite of the 'Lady Diana' shot. One is all symmetry and clarity, the other is misty and mysterious. The higgledy-piggledy minarets and the blue haze make the building seem more like a fairy tale castle. I do like this shot, but I still regret being too polite to get the one I wanted...!
This would've been a great shot. It could've been a great shot. It should've been a great shot. But it wasn't. Why? Motion blur. If you look closely, you can see that the whole body is slightly out of focus, and that was simply because I didn't think to change my shutter speed. I was parked in a jeep in Botswana when a herd of impala came chasing across the road. They were galloping fast, but there were five or six of them, so I did have time to focus on each of them, one by one, as they crossed the road in turn. Unfortunately, I was using my default camera settings that were designed to capture animals that were standing still. I was using an 80-400mm lens, so I had my camera on 1/320 and f/8 with auto ISO. That would normally have worked, but not for a jumping impala! What I really needed was a shutter speed of at least 1/1000 of a second. I just didn't think...
A few years ago, I went to a talk given by Paul Goldstein somewhere in London, and one of the slides he showed was a picture of a caracal. I'd never seen one at the time, but Paul was very proud of his shot, which showed a caracal from the side running through long grass. The image stayed in my mind, and I was very excited when I went to Tanzania in January 2018 and actually saw one for myself! It was quite a way away, but I had my 800mm lens with me, and I was just about to take a shot when the driver told me to wait. He was going to drive around and get closer. Well, funnily enough, the caracal disappeared, and I never got the shot I wanted...
In June 2014, I went on an Exodus trip with Paul Goldstein to Spitsbergen to see the polar bear. It was a last-minute booking, so I got a good deal on the price, and I was lucky enough to share a cabin with a nice French chap called Eric, but the real prize was getting some good shots of a polar bear. We had 13 or so sightings, but, sadly, they were all too far away for my 500mm lens. That was in the days before I got into the habit of renting the Nikon 800mm monster, and I really wish I'd had it then. Amongst other sightings, a mother and her two cubs put on a great show for us on the ice, but, when I got back to my cabin to review my shots, I found they were all too soft and too distant. Ah, well, at least I have an excuse to go again now...
I've been to Africa several times now, visiting Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia and Botswana, but I've never seen a kill. I've seen the chase, and I've seen the predator eating its prey, but I've never seen the crucial moment of the kill. Now, I know some people would be a little squeamish about seeing one animal kill another, but I don't think I'd feel that way. To me, it's the ultimate expression of 'the survival of the fittest', and I'd love to see a lion, leopard or cheetah kill something on the great plains of Africa.
I have many stories of 'the one that got away'. There was the time when I climbed Mount Kenya and arrived back at the camp, only to find that everyone that morning had spent an hour watching a pride of lions kill a wildebeest 50 yards away from the gate of the national park! Or there was the time on the same trip when I booked the wrong flight home and had the chance to spend an extra day on my very own personal game drive. We saw a cheetah 'timing' (or hunting) an impala, and it was the most exciting thing that's ever happened to me in Africa - but no kill. In Antarctica, I watched from a Zodiac as a leopard seal ripped apart a penguin, but I didn't quite see the initial attack. In the Brazilian Pantanal, I was watching a jaguar on the river bank from a small boat when the call came over the radio that lunch was ready. No sooner had we met up with the other boat than we had another call, this time to say that the very same jaguar had just killed a caiman! We rushed back and watched as the young jaguar made a mess of the whole thing. To begin with, he had hold of his prey by the throat rather than the back of the neck. This is fine if you're a lion, but jaguars prefer to kill caiman (or small crocodiles) by nipping them on the back of the neck. This jaguar was in a bit of a bind: he didn't want to kill the caiman the 'wrong' way, but he couldn't change his grip in case it got away. He spent 10 minutes humming and hawing before finally killing the caiman, but that was only the start of his problems. His next job was to find a safe place to store his prey, but the banks of the river were 8-10ft high and very steep, so he spent another 25 minutes trying to find a way up into the undergrowth, desperately trying to drag the 10ft crocodile with him. By this stage, around 20 boats had gathered to see the jaguar, and, when he eventually managed to scramble up the bank with his kill, everybody gave him a big round of applause!
All this goes to show exactly how close I've come to the elusive kill, but no luck so far. However, I'm off to the Masai Mara in a couple of weeks, so maybe, just maybe I'll be able to bring back the shot I've been dying to get...
A few years ago, I started doing all my photographic post-processing in Lightroom. It's the program used by most professional photographers and is reasonably user-friendly, I got to grips with Lightroom mostly by watching a very useful series of YouTube videos by Anthony Morganti, but this article is just a description of my basic workflow. I pay around £10 a month for access to Lightroom Classic (which I use almost all the time) and Photoshop (which I rarely use except for model releases that need thumbnail images superimposing on them).
My aim when using Lightroom is to produce the best photograph I can. That usually means changing a few basic settings to add contrast and saturation, but I have no problem cloning out dust spots, flies or even annoying tourists! I sometimes want to be more ambitious, though, and this tiger shot is an example. The original picture looks dreadful. I took the picture in bright sunlight, but I deliberately underexposed it to create the illusion that the tiger was lit by a shaft of light in a cave. It needed a lot of work in Lightroom to complete the effect, but it's won a couple of competitions now, so I think it's worth it! Some photographers want to stick to naturalism as much as possible and won't do anything to their images apart from crop them or perhaps add some contrast. Others give themselves a bit more licence by saying that they want the picture to come as close as possible to what it looked like in real life - which is never very convincing, but there you go. Whatever your approach, this guide to Lightroom workflow should help you reach your goal as quickly as and reliably as possible.
What does 'workflow' mean?
Your workflow is simply the steps you go through in order to choose your best shots and make them look as good as possible. You might be on a cruise ship in the Antarctic or in a tent in Chobe National Park or back at home in Blighty, but - wherever you are - you should have a standard approach to cataloguing and post-processing your shots. This is my system, but feel free to change it or add to it according to what you prefer:
- Import to computer
I like to keep up-to-date with editing my pictures, so I usually work on them every day after I get back from the game drive (or whatever the shoot happens to be). I'm usually out all day shooting, so I take the first chance I get to go through everything before lunch or dinner back at camp. To do that, I first of all connect my camera to my MacBook Pro and import all the RAW files to a new folder in Pictures using Image Capture. I have two cameras, so I usually have a shower or something while the first one's chugging away, and then I work on the first batch of images while the second is being copied across from my other camera. I usually take over 1,000 images in a day, so this can take a while, and I get very impatient at this point! I've done my best to buy Compact Flash (CF) or Secure Digital (SD) cards with the fastest possible read and write speeds just to help speed up the process, and I now have an extra-fast XQD (eXperimental Quality Determination) card for my D850, but it's never enough. I have a Mac, so Image Capture is the default program for importing files, but it will obviously be different if you have a PC. I could import my shots directly using Lightroom, but I've had a couple of bad experiences when Lightroom has crashed while trying to import thousands of files, so I use Image Capture just to be on the safe side.
- Import to Lightroom
I then import the files to Lightroom. This doesn't involve any actual copying of files, so it only takes a few seconds. I usually do it without any of the custom 'Import' settings, but you could set this up if you wanted to. It's a trade-off between speed and convenience. If you always want a vignette, for example, then you could create a preset and import using that preset. That way, every shot has the same vignette. However, it makes the import process last that bit longer, so it's up to you. The other thing you can do is create 1:1 previews. This again is more time-consuming, but it makes a huge difference when it comes to viewing and editing each file in full-screen mode. It's extremely frustrating when Lightroom keeps displaying the 'Loading...' message for each new file, particularly when you just want to check sharpness at 1:1, but those messages disappear if you build the previews during the import process. Try it and see for yourself.
- Rate images
I only end up trying to sell about 1% of the shots I take, so rating the images I like is generally much quicker than rejecting the ones I don't! (If your hit rate is more than 50%, you can always type 'x' to reject images and delete them later all in one go.) To rate pictures, you simply type a number between 1 and 5, and the equivalent star rating is added to all the selected images. (You can press 0 to remove the rating or 6 to add the colour red, which I used to do for people shots.) In my system, I give 3 stars generally to shots of my friends or fellow guests worth putting on Facebook, 4 stars to shots worth selling and 5 stars to my all-time favourites. (To give you an idea, I currently have over 5,000 shots I've rated 4 stars or more, but only 142 5-star shots!) During the rating process, I sometimes have to crop an image or do some very basic editing to see if it's worth keeping, but I try to keep it 'quick and dirty' to save time.
- Check ratings
Once I've rated all my shots, I go over all the 4- or 5-star images again to check the rating. This crucially includes checking the sharpness at 100% because agencies are very quick to reject images that aren't quite sharp enough. It also means checking for duplicates. It's very easy to end up with several shots of the same subject from the same angle, especially if the shots were taken at different times so they don't end up right next to each other. Agencies again tend to reject images that are too similar to each other, so it's worth going through with a fine-tooth comb at this point. Otherwise, you'll end up duplicating all your later work for a file that ends up in the trash...!
- Post-process images
Digital images don't generally look their best straight out of the box, so this is when I spend a bit of time making basic adjustments to my 4- and 5-star images. I make a couple of global changes, but the rest are local. The global changes are Dehaze and Post-crop vignetting. The Dehaze slider in the basic panel of Lightroom can remove haze, but it's also useful for any shot that just needs a little bit more contrast, clarity, saturation and vibrance. I generally set it to +25, and I've created a preset that allows me to apply the change to all of my images at the same time. I do the same with Post-crop vignetting. Vignettes tend to focus the viewer's eyes on the subject by darkening the corners of the image, so I generally set the slider to +20. As most of my pictures are wildlife portraits, that works just fine, but I generally won't use a vignette when there's a large expanse of sky as it just looks plain daft! The local adjustments I make to each file generally involve using the tools in the basic panel (such as cropping, changing the exposure and choosing different black and white points to avoid clipping of highlights and shadows), so I tend to click the 'Auto' button to begin with and then only make further changes where I have to.
- Add metadata
The most time-consuming part of this whole process is adding the metadata. If you're not a serious photographer aiming to sell your shots to stock agencies, then you obviously don't need to do much at this point, but the more data you add, the easier it is to find files when you need to. For example, if you've just come back from Botswana and someone asks to see all your elephant shots, you'll feel a bit daft if you've never even bothered to add any tags! I take all my 4- and 5-star images and add titles, captions and keywords. Stock agencies have rules on the type and number of characters in each metadata field, so I avoid apostrophes and give all my images seven-word titles that are no longer than 50 characters. In theory, captions should be different from titles, but I find it too time-consuming to do that for all my files, so I keep them the same except for any 5-star images. I put those on my website and tend to enter those in competitions, so it's worth expending a little extra effort to sell the sizzle! Keywords are essential for Search Engine Optimisation, so I use at least 10 but more often 20 or 30, including tags describing the location, content and theme of the image (plus obvious synonyms). After each trip, I set up a metadata preset for Design Pics (my main stock agency) in order to add the data they require, such as city, country and copyright status. I also create a location in the Maps module and drag all my images to it in order to geotag them with GPS data. It's worth noting that I set the time zone, date, time and copyright information on my cameras before I go on a trip so I don't have to worry about any of that when I get home.
- Export images
Lightroom is what they call a 'non-destructive' program, which means that the RAW files that you edit aren't actually changed when you edit them. Instead, Lightroom keeps a list of editing instructions that it follows every time you want to view a file. As a result, it's essential to export any files that you intend to view outside Lightroom or upload to any stock agencies. I've set up presets for all the folders I usually export to, but stock agencies generally want JPEG files no more than 20MB in size, so I've used that as my limit. Most agencies also have minimum quality thresholds, so I try not to crop so much that the image is less than 6.3 megapixels. I initially export all my 4- and 5-star images as 20MB sRGB JPEGs at the highest quality setting to three folders: '4*', '5*' and 'Favourites' - which holds both. (These files automatically show up in Lightroom as I've set it up that way in Preferences.) I then export the same files to my 'To upload' folder using a special low-resolution preset that follows the Design Pics guidelines. I have an exclusive agreement with Design Pics, and I give them first refusal on all my photographs. However, the metadata requirements for Design Pics are different from those of the other agencies, so I have to be careful to get it right. The main difference is in the Headline and Caption fields. Design Pics requires Headline to be 'NA', and I write a long description in the Caption field of my 5* images in order to put it on my website, but some agencies take the title of the image from the Headline and Caption fields, so I have to copy and paste the correct data several hundred times! (There is a plug-in that copies data from one field to another, but the free version only works on 10 files at a time...)
- Upload to agencies
Once I've exported all my 4* and 5* files, I upload them to Design Pics via FTP using Filezilla (together with any required model or property releases). It usually takes them a few weeks to decide which ones they want. When I've received a list of their 'selects', I export high-resolution versions and upload them via FTP again. Sometimes, these files don't pass QA due to lack of sharpness or some other issue, so I have to wait another week or so before I know exactly which files I can send to the other agencies. Once I have the definitive list, I upload them to all the other agencies using Filezilla, websites or DeepMeta (for Getty Images). Buyers tend to search among the newest images, so I've taken to uploading 100 files each month in order to maximise the chances of a sale. We'll see if it works...! I keep track of the whole process on a spreadsheet. Each image has a row, and each agency has a column, and I note the current status by putting 'u' for 'uploaded', 's' for 'submitted' and 'y' for accepted. I've also created quite a few extra columns for continent, country, type of image, exhibitions, online galleries and competitions. Managing over 5,000 images is a complicated process, so I rely on Excel to make sure I know what's going on!
- Delete images
Once all my images are copied across to my laptop and properly edited and catalogued, I can format the memory cards and delete any unrated files in Lightroom. File management should always be done in Lightroom rather than Finder in order to make sure that the changes are synchronised properly. If you do it the other way round, Lightroom will flag deleted images as 'missing'. This also applies to any changes you make to the metadata. If you select the right settings in Lightroom, these will automatically be copied to the underlying files in Finder, and that's a huge time-saver. For example, if you suddenly realise you've spelt 'elephant' wrong in some of your elephant pictures, you can simply search for the wrong spelling, highlight all the pictures that pop up and correct it globally in the keywords window.
- Back up
Backing up all my pictures and documents is absolutely essential, so I use a cloud storage service called CrashPlan from Code42. It runs in the background and simply copies any changes or deletions to the back-up servers in real time. If I realise I've deleted a file by accident, I can search for it on CrashPlan and restore whichever version I want - either the latest version or the version before I made a mistake with my edits. CrashPlan works fine as long as I have a working internet connection, but it did take a few weeks to sync all my files when I first started using it, and it doesn't help me when I'm in Africa or in the Arctic Circle without any wi-fi! My biggest fear is losing all the pictures I've taken while I'm on a trip, and I still haven't worked out a solution to the problem. I guess I could take a spare hard drive or USB stick, but I've been too lazy so far. Let's hope I don't pay the ultimate price...!
Lightroom is a subject I'm learning all the time, but I hope this will give you a head start!
Review of wildlife photography exhibition at 508 King's Road and winners of the caption competitionRead More
When I was young, it was a dream of mine to go on safari in Africa, but I thought it would be such a special trip that I saved it for my honeymoon - which never arrived! In the end, I received an email from a friend inviting me to climb Mount Kenya and go on safari. I jumped at the chance, and that was how my career as a wildlife photographer got started.
If you've never been on safari but are thinking about booking something, here's the bluffer's guide. You'll obviously need to do a bit of research online yourself, just to find out where the best places are and how much you're likely to have to spend, but this is my advice.
The website Safari Bookings thinks the top four safari destinations are Tanzania, Botswana, Zambia and Kenya, so here's my quick summary:
- Tanzania offers the classic destinations of the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater, plus others such as Lake Manyara and Tarangire (all of which I visited). It's unusual in that you can go pretty much all year round as long as you avoid the short and long rains. The Serengeti and Ngorongoro have endless plains where you can easily see the game, and the amount of wildlife is generally good, particularly during the Great Migration, which takes thousands of wildebeest and zebra in an enormous clockwise circle through Tanzania and Kenya and continues throughout the year. Lake Manyara and Tarangire are more picturesque, but the added trees and hills make the game less easy to spot. There's just one small caveat, which is that you won't see any giraffe in the Ngorongoro Crater - their legs are too long to climb down into it!
- Botswana is expensive, but I had a great trip there in 2016. It's good for the amount of wildlife and the almost constant presence of water, which makes a great backdrop, offers the chance of boat trips and means the animals are always interacting with it, either drinking or taking mud baths or play-fighting or just crossing the Chobe River. However, you need to go to the right parts, and that means the Okavango Delta, Moremi Game Reserve and Chobe National Park (which includes Savuti).
- Zambia is apparently a good place to visit for the South Luangwa, which is where I'm planning to lead a trip in summer 2018, but I haven't been yet...
- Kenya was the first African country I ever visited, so I'm very fond of it. The Masai Mara is the place to go, and that's where you get the shots of the wildebeest crossing the Mara or Grumeti river, hesitant at first and then all tumbling over themselves to jump down the cliffs and into the water. I'm going there in summer 2018, so fingers crossed!
The cost of your trip will depend mostly on the time of year, type of accommodation, number of people and duration. To give you an idea of the range of prices, I spent two weeks in Botswana on a private mobile safari that cost me over £6,000, but I also stayed in Tanzania for 10 days on an Exodus group safari for £3,499.
- Time of year
Peak season is generally July to October, although it gets very hot in September and October (over 40°C), so you can get a cheaper option in the 'shoulder season', but the downside is that you see less wildlife, as water is more plentiful, which means they don't gather in numbers around the water sources.
- Type of accommodation
If you want to travel in style, you can stay at lodges, usually outside the gates of the national parks. However, if you're happy to put up with tents, that will save you a lot of money. There are two kinds of tent: the first is the one you'll find in what they call 'permanent tented camps', and it's more like a cabin, with a tent at the front, but with a proper bed and a bathroom with toilet and shower built at the back. (That's what I had in Tanzania recently.) The other kind is just a two-man tent that the staff will usually put up for you, although you may have to do it yourself. If you pay a 'single supplement', you don't have to share with anyone, but it'll normally cost you an extra £300-400.
- Number of people
I went on a private mobile safari to Botswana in 2016. It was great for my purposes as a photographer, but most people would probably enjoy a group trip more, and it would be a lot cheaper! My Tanzania trip with Exodus was around £3,500, but I was lucky in that I booked it late, so I didn't have to share with anyone even though I hadn't paid the single supplement! You obviously take a risk by going with people you don't know, and there are usually one or two that you end up trying to avoid (!), but you shouldn't go too far wrong with operators like Exodus, and all the guests will obviously share an interest in Nature, wildlife and usually photography.
There are safaris available from just a long weekend to a couple of months, but I'd suggest around a week or 10 days to begin with. That gives you the chance to go to different destinations within a country and maximise your chances of good wildlife sightings. Obviously, the longer the trip, the more expensive it is, but there are still a few bargains to be had if you're not fussy about the accommodation.
Once you've decided exactly what type of safari you're looking for, you're ready to go ahead and book, A useful place to start is Safari Bookings, which is a website where you can filter all the available tours by country, region, price and duration, so it's incredibly useful. On the other hand, some of the tours turn out to be unavailable once you contact the operator, so it's not perfect!
I've been on photographic trips with Exodus, Audley Travel, Naturetrek, WorldwideXplorer and G Adventures, and I hear that Explore is another good option. They're all pretty similar, although G Adventures has a younger age profile than Exodus, and Audley Travel offers (much!) more expensive bespoke trips.
I should mention here that I also lead tour parties to Africa myself. In the summer of 2018, I'm planning to visit Botswana, Zambia and Kenya, and you can find full details on the Events page. My trips are geared towards wildlife photographers, but that doesn't mean you need to be a budding professional to enjoy the trip! If you'd like to have a chat about my photographic trips or just safaris in general, please feel free to drop me a line at firstname.lastname@example.org or call me on +44 7942 800921.
Tired of always having to ask your safari guide what you're looking at on a game drive? Here's your cut-out-and-keep guide to the most common animals. Shout 'Bingo!' when you've crossed them all off...but not too loudly!
Confused by all the species of birds you're seeing on safari in Africa? Here's your cut-out-and-keep guide to the most common ones. Shout 'Bingo!' when you've crossed them all off...but not too loudly!
As Noël Coward never said, "Very flat, Tanzania."
When God painted Tanzania, he did so with a very limited palette of green and brown. There's not much variety in the landscape either, and some of the grassy plains are so flat you could lie on your back and see for a hundred miles! The only relief is the occasional kopje, or rock formation, but that's more like the artist's signature on a blank canvas. However, when He carved the Serengeti heat alive with wildlife, His imagination knew no limit. I saw a total of 38 animals and 85 birds during my Classic Tanzania Safari with Exodus Travels, including lion, leopard, elephant, Cape buffalo, rhinoceros, cheetah, zebra, giraffe and impala. We even saw the very rare caracal, which is a medium-sized cat similar to a lynx. There wasn't as much game as there is in the peak season from July to September, but we still saw thousands of wildebeest and zebra taking part in the Great Migration, and I took over a thousand pictures a day! In the end, I came back with 669 shots I thought were good enough to sell through stock agencies, and I even chose three prints to include in my next exhibition.
The spectacular and exciting variety of animals in places like Tanzania is the reason I keep going back to Africa, and, for me, the highlights of any trip are usually connected with the pictures I manage to take. After all, I count myself a professional photographer these days, so I never just go on 'holiday' any more! We didn't see a kill - which is the crowning glory of any safari - but we did see a cheetah just after it had killed a hartebeest. It spent around half an hour gorging itself right in front of us - only five or ten yards away - while a marabou stork and over a dozen vultures waited patiently for their share of the spoils. On the horizon, the hartebeest's mother kept up a solo vigil the whole time. Very sad...
Another highlight was seeing so many lions. One day, we were driving through a meadow with very tall grass, and I told our driver Julius that we were in 'lion country' now. Within a couple of hours, we'd seen around 14 lions in two separate prides, one lounging on a termite mound and another sleeping beside a tree! I love the excitement of predators, so it was great to be able to get such good sightings.
The other highlight was the birds we saw. Tanzania has a huge bird population, with more than 1,100 species, and we saw some spectacular specimens, including a red-cheeked cordon-bleu and a red-and-yellow barbet that I never even knew existed! When it comes to individual shots, my favourite was the one of the lilac-breasted roller at the top of the page. It's a beautiful bird anyway, but I was particularly lucky when it fluttered its wings unexpectedly without taking off. That gave me the chance to get a rare 'action shot'. I prefer action shots to portraits, but there wasn't much action to see on this trip, apart from a couple of buffalo fighting in the distance and two elephants 'fighting' like punched-out heavyweights in the 12th round of a fight, so we had to make the most of what we were given.
There were nine guests on the Exodus trip, which ran from 12-21 January 2018, plus an excellent guide called Jackson and a couple of drivers - Alex and Julius - for the four-wheel drive Toyota Land Cruisers we were using. One of the guests put a message on the Exodus community website before the trip, so I ended up meeting her at Heathrow and travelling with her all the way to Kilimanjaro, where we joined with the rest of the group. The actual 'travelling' is the only bit of travelling I don't like, so it was nice to have some company on such a long journey (and in the jeep later). Getting to Africa is never straightforward, and it took me over 38 hours to go from my flat in Putney to the front seat of the Land Cruiser on our first game drive!
I love close-up shots, so I followed my usual habit of renting a Nikon 800mm lens from Lenses For Hire for our trip. I have two Nikon camera bodies, a D810 and a D850, and I usually fit my Nikon 80-400mm lens to one and the 800mm lens to the other. I end up taking roughly half my shots with each camera. The only other things I take with me are my SpiderPro belt (just to help me carry everything to the jeep!), a lens cloth and a spare battery. You generally spend most of the day in the safari truck, so you don't need to worry about bringing hiking boots. I just put on trainers, cargo pants (with plenty of pockets!), a long-sleeved shirt (or merino base layer if it's cold) and a proper sun hat with a chin strap (not a baseball cap, as the brim gets in the way, and it might blow off!). The sun is usually very hot, and I always use a Nivea stick on my nose, but I avoid having to put on too much sun cream by covering up my arms and legs. If you're a photographer, you don't go on safari to get a sun tan!
Game drives are the whole point of going on safari, and you soon get into a routine. Whether you're staying at lodges or permanent tented camps or even in tents you have to put up yourselves, you always end up doing pretty much the same thing - and this trip was no exception. You generally wake up to an early breakfast - either at dawn or even earlier - and go out in your safari trucks for a few hours before returning for lunch or eating a packed lunch somewhere along the way. After another game drive in the afternoon, you head back to camp for a shower, drinks, dinner and a relatively early night. When I get back to camp, I like to edit all the pictures I've taken during the day, so that usually means hunching over my laptop for a few hours here and there. I wake up early at the best of times, so that means I can do a few hours' work before breakfast or, if I can't sleep, in the middle of the night!
Most safaris take place in a few different places, so the routine will also often include a journey to the next stop. Apart from a quick visit to the Oldupai Gorge to hear about the Leakeys' paleontological discoveries, we visited four main locations on our trip: Lake Manyara, Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Crater and Tarangire National Park, and they were all very different.
Lake Manyara National Park is not the most famous safari destination, but it does have a reputation for its 'tree-climbing lions'. In fact, all lions can climb trees, but the lions that climb trees at Lake Manyara (which we actually saw) get the extra benefit of cool breezes on the slopes of the surrounding hills. Inside the park, you'll find Lake Manyara itself and a flat, marshy plain around it, but also the heavily wooded hills that form the walls of the Great Rift Valley. This was formed by plate tectonics and is a vast corridor that runs the length of Africa, all the way from Jordan to Mozambique. It splits into eastern and western spurs, but they're both so wide that you can never see the hills on both sides. Instead, you find the enormous flat plains known as the African savanna(h), which are the home to all the 'traditional' game animals, including the Big Five (rhino, elephant, lion, leopard and Cape buffalo). When you enter Lake Manyara National Park, the first things you notice are the trees and the hills that form the walls of the Rift Valley. The lack of open ground means that game is tricky to spot initially - apart from a few vervet and blue monkeys in the trees - but it gets easier once you drive out to the lake. Sadly, there was an unusually large amount of overnight rain during the course of our trip, so the lake and other water holes we passed were not the 'game magnets' that they normally are during the dry season. However, if the quantity of sightings was low, the quality was high, so that kept us happy.
The Serengeti plains are the stereotypical African safari destination. There is a good quantity of game all year round, and the landscape is ideal for spotting them as there are so few trees. Apparently, all the volcanic activity in the area has left a layer of tough igneous deposits a few feet below the surface that prevent trees from getting the nourishment they need to grow. Whatever the reason, it means that you are able to see those iconic, unbroken vistas that remind you of the etymology of 'Serengeti', which means 'endless plain'.
The Ngorongoro is named after the sound a Masai cowbell makes. It is surprisingly small, and you can see the walls of both sides of the caldera from wherever you are on the central plain. There is also a strange optical illusion at work. The crater is 600 metres deep, and it looks like a very long way from the viewpoint up on the rim at 2,400 metres above sea level, but, when you look back up from the crater floor, the hills don't look that high at all. Strange... Anyway, the Ngorongoro has a justly deserved reputation as a safari destination and contains all the animals you'd expect to see - with the exception of the giraffe, which can't get down the steep slope from the crater rim because its legs are too long! On our trip, we had a couple of good sightings of lions here, particularly on the kopjes, where they choose to lie high up on the rocks to get a better view, and we came across a family group of elephants on either side of the road that gave us a great chance to get up close and personal.
In terms of the landscape, Tarangire National Park is a kind of cross between Lake Manyara and the Serengeti. It boasts the hills and water of the first, but with the open savannah of the second. It also has quite a few of the distinctive baobab trees.
Did you know?
Baobab trees can be up to 2,000 years old, but there are few young ones as they get eaten by elephants, which eat the bark of the tree in the dry season as it contains large amounts of water.
Unfortunately, we didn't see much game there when we went. Normally, it's an important source of water for the animals, but the unseasonal rains meant that there was enough water for them to range far and wide without being tied to the Tarangire River. That meant they could 'save' that water source for when they really needed it in the dry season. We spent most of our time in Tarangire driving around looking for game, and the only good shot I got was the one of the lilac-breasted roller. On the other hand, the views were spectacular, and we spent our last night at a wonderful place called the Tarangire Safari Lodge, which gets a star rating in Lonely Planet. It had a long row of tents for all the guests, each with solar-powered lights and showers and a veranda with chairs and a table out front. There was a lookout point on the cliffs a few yards away that offered a spectacular panorama of the hills and river below, and the main building incorporated an enormous circular banda, with a vast roof above the dining area.
The food was a cut above the usual fare, and our dinner there consisted of pumpkin and ginger soup, mango and green pepper salad, bean and vegetable salad and then beef stew with rice or potatoes, followed by passion fruit mousse and plum tart with custard. The only problem was all the bugs flying around - even indoors. They managed to bite me even through my shirt, leaving four angry red spots on my back. It was horrendous, and it was the first time on the entire trip that I threatened to lose my sense of humour. Trying to edit my pictures on my laptop at the bar after dinner was almost impossible. The staff didn't do anything about all the creepy-crawlies and flying insects - apart from clearing away the dead bugs with a broom! - and it got even worse when I got back to my tent. It was crawling with insects, but there was no bug spray, and the bed didn't even have a mosquito net. When I couldn’t find the light switch as it wasn’t in the bathroom...well, I lost it and started sweating my head off! I hope my neighbours didn’t hear me! In the end, I had to squash all the bugs with a laminated menu card from the welcome pack. What a way to ruin - and I mean absolutely ruin! - what should’ve been a great experience to end the trip.
This Is Africa
That brings me on to a final point about going on safari. You have to take the rough with the smooth. 'This Is Africa', as they say, so you should expect a few minor problems and even one or two dramas, but you have to take it in good part. "Hakuna matata," as they say, or "No worries." If you were to write a list of pros and cons for going on safari, it would look something like this:
- Very expensive
- Long journey to get there
- Long hours in the jeep
- No electricity during the night (if at all!)
- No hot water during the night (if at all!)
- Patchy mobile coverage
- Patchy or non-existent wi-fi
- Broken equipment, eg in-car radio transceivers
- Mosquitoes carrying a risk of malaria (and therefore having to take Malarone pills every day)
- Tsetse flies (with a very sharp bite!) carrying a risk of sleeping sickness
- All kinds of other insects and bugs, dropping on you wherever you are and making a home in the bathroom
- Not being able to drink the water
- Poor quality food and lack of alternative options
- Constant worry about losing something or having it stolen (particularly bad in my case when staying in a tent without a lock on it with £30,000-worth of camera equipment in my bag!)
- Daily risk of food poisoning (particularly from ice in drinks and/or washed vegetables such as green peppers - which directly caused me to make five unscheduled trips to the bathroom in Tarangire!)
- Having to share a room/tent with someone who is not necessarily your favourite person in the world (unless you pay hundreds of pounds to sleep on your own!)
- Vehicles often breaking down or getting stuck
- Animals trying to get into your tent at night
- Having to be escorted around the camp after dark in case of animal attack
- Etc, etc, etc...
- Er, that's it...
Yes, I know it's a very long list of cons and a very short list of pros. In fact, it was worse than that on our trip as a bridge was washed away by the flooding, and we had to find a way to ford the river in our Land Cruiser. So many jeeps got stuck in the mud trying to do the same thing that it looked a bit like the elephants' graveyard, but we eventually found a way across. Our problems didn't end there, though, as some enterprising locals had decided to pile rocks on the way up from the makeshift river crossing and were demanding money to let us through! We eventually had to have a whip-round and gave them a few Tanzanian shillings. Even then, we got stuck in the mud on the way back to the main road, and it was only when all the passengers climbed out of the jeep that Julius was able to make it to safety. We all thought he'd done a great job - until we found out that Alex had managed drive the other jeep across without any problems at all!
And yet, and yet...we did see fantastic wildlife. It may not sound like much compared to having to get up at five in the morning and go without hot water, electricity and wi-fi most of the time, but the fact I keep going back speaks for itself. When you sit down with your grandchildren on your knee, and they ask what you did during your lifetime, are you going to tell them you had eight hours' sleep every night and a hot shower every morning and never let a day go by without checking social media, or are you going to tell them you saw the best of God's creation in Africa...?
1 x tube of sun cream (confiscated at Heathrow)
1 x tube of shower gel (confiscated at Heathrow)
£60 fine for exceeding hand luggage weight limit (confiscated at Heathrow)
Cape (or African) buffalo
Common (or plains) zebra
Abdim’s storkAfrican fish eagle
Black-necked sand goose
Brown snake eagle
Common house martin
Eastern chanting goshawk
Grey crowned crane
Southern ground hornbill
Tailed rufous weaver
Von der Decken’s hornbill
White-faced whistling duck
White-headed buffalo weaver
Thanks to everyone who came along to my talk. I hope you enjoyed the show!
I gave a talk to the Watford Camera Club last night at the Friends Meeting House on Church Road. A very nice lady called Sarah looked after me, and she and a few other members helped me set up the projector, connect my laptop and lay out a few wildlife prints on a couple of metal stands plus a few business cards and a visitors' book for people to sign. After a few club notices from Sarah, I started my talk.
I was due to speak for around an hour and a half, which was a bit longer than usual, so I had to expand my slideshow by adding a few more images. I ended up with around 150 pictures from all the photographic trips I've taken around the world, and, as I went through them, I told a few stories and picked up on a couple of technical points as I went along. The audience also chipped in with a few questions. After 45 minutes or so, we stopped for a tea break, and then i carried on for another 45 minutes. I finished on time - which was a relief! - and I was given a couple of generous rounds of applause, so I hope the audience enjoyed the talk as much as I did!
Four people signed up to my mailing list, and a couple left some kind words in my visitors' book, so thanks again to everyone. I'm just sorry that Terri, my original contact at the club, couldn't make it on the night.
Verdict: Could do better...
I recently joined the Society of International Nature and Wildlife Photographers (SINWP), and one of the first things I did was to apply to join their mentoring programme. The criteria they use to rate the images are as follows:
- Creativity and style
- Image or print presentation
- Centre of interest
- Colour balance
- Technical excellence
- Photographic technique
- Story telling and subject matter
I submitted my top 20 images, and this is the feedback I received. I've made all the suggested changes (where possible), so these images are the new and improved versions!
Comments: Hi, Nick, you have some brilliant images here, just watch the camera movement and put them back into Photoshop and play with the density a little more to give the images more depth. But keep up the good work.
Hmm, good question...
The obvious question for a lot of amateur photographers is 'How do I make money from photography?' The answer, unfortunately, is that I don't know. All I can do is tell you what I've done and give you a few ideas. I'm still learning the business after just four years, but my approach has always been to knock on as many doors as possible, whether it's microstock, exhibitions, competitions, lessons or even talks. Every source of revenue has its part to play, and it's just a question of working out where to focus your efforts. I make just under half my money from microstock/stock agencies and half from exhibitions, but everybody's different.
Nick Dale Photography
I loved photography when I was a teenager. I bought (or was given) books on Henri Cartier-Bresson, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Ansel Adams and other great photographers, and I even bought myself an old Chinon CE-4 film SLR. I remember buying two 36-exposure films for it - one colour, one black and white - and using up every single frame in a couple of hours just taking pictures around the house! I took my camera on holiday to Majorca and the United States, developed pictures in a dark room at school and even talked to my mum about becoming a professional photographer. However, my mother said I could always take it up later – so that was that for 30 years! Fortunately, I was given a second chance in January 2013 when a friend of a friend invited me to climb Mount Kenya and go on safari with her and a couple of other people. I'd always wanted to go to Africa, but I'd foolishly been saving it for my honeymoon! As that didn't seem very likely, I jumped at the chance.
My first digital camera was a Sony DSC-HX200V bridge camera, which means it had a good zoom range (both optical and digital), but not a very large sensor. As a result, it was only around £300 and therefore cheap enough for me to buy without worrying too much. Fortunately or unfortunately, a week in Kenya with people using proper Nikon SLRs gave me camera envy, and I bought a Nikon D800 SLR with a 28-300mm lens as soon as I got home!
And that was how it all started. I took hundreds of pictures in Kenya of the people, the landscape and especially the wildlife. When I got back, I bought an Apple MacBook Pro to work on them, upgraded the editing program to Aperture and then sent them off to various microstock agencies to see if they would help me sell them. It was hard at first, but getting the new camera helped, and I had a cash pile from remortgaging my flat in Notting Hill after another property purchase fell through, so I was able to go on plenty of trips to take more and more pictures.
An important breakthrough came when I sold a couple of prints for £100 each at my local tennis club's Christmas Fair in November 2014, and another photographer told me about a cheap exhibition space called the Norman Plastow Gallery in Wimbledon Village. I'd always thought it would be very expensive to mount an exhibition, but this place was only £70 for a week, so I booked it as soon as I could! The only problem was that I didn't have any actual prints to sell, and here I was very fortunate. I'd recently joined the Putney branch of London Independent Photography (or LIP), and there I'd met a very friendly and helpful chap called James, who'd offered to do all my printing for me at very low cost. After buying a few cheap, black, wooden frames from Amazon, I was all set. I invited all my friends to the exhibition in May 2015 - especially a group of tennis players from my club - and I ended up selling seven prints. As I was just starting out, I'd priced the small, medium and large framed prints at £80, £100 and £120 and the unframed ones at only £30, but I still managed to make £550 in total. The gallery hire charge was £200, and there were a few taxis to pay for plus incidental expenses, but the show actually turned a profit - unless you count the thousands of pounds I spent on buying camera equipment and flights to Kenya, Botswana, Antarctica and the Galápagos!
And there's the rub. It's relatively easy to generate revenue from photography, but actually making a profit out of it is another matter entirely. As a result, I have nothing but respect for the photographers I meet who have managed to make a career out of it. I've been on trips led by Paul Goldstein and Andy Skillen amongst others, and, in a way, that's where I'd like to end up. Since that first show in Wimbledon Village, I've sold nearly 5,000 downloads through microstock agencies, sold 36 prints at solo exhibitions and art fairs, taught five photography students and given two or three talks to various clubs and societies. Overall, I've made around £12,000 from my photography - but that wouldn't even have paid for my trip to Antarctica!
The problem is that everyone has a camera these days - even if it's just an iPhone - and it's almost 'too easy' to take pictures now that cameras are digital. The world is also a smaller place these days, with the arrival of cheap flights and a general rise in income and wealth. It takes a special talent to make it as a photographer, and part of that talent is being able to make the most of it.
What do I need to do first?
- Buy a camera
If you want to make money out of photography, your first job is to get yourself a decent camera, and that means a digital SLR (or DSLR). The easiest way to earn cash is through so-called microstock agencies - which means selling pictures online in exchange for royalty payments - and they usually require shots to be taken with a camera that has at least 12 megapixels, if not more. You can obviously try to sell holiday snaps from your 'back catalogue', but, as I found out to my cost, it ain't easy. Once you've decided to buy a DSLR, the two main brands to choose from are Nikon and Canon. There isn't much between them these days, and the only reason I chose Nikon is that I didn't want a camera from a company that made photocopiers! They both make good lenses, but, unfortunately, they have different mounts, so one you go with one or the other you're locked in. I have various lenses ranging from an 18-35mm wide angle zoom to a 105mm macro lens for close-up work to an 80-400mm mid-range zoom, but I also rent an 800mm lens from Lenses for Hire whenever I go on a major wildlife photography trip.
- Buy a laptop
If you don't have one already, buying a decent laptop is great for photography. I take mine with me on all my trips, and it means that I can work on my images every evening after I get back from a shoot or a game drive. I should warn you, though, that the so-called RAW files from digital cameras are very large (in the case of my camera over 40MB each!), so I'd recommend getting as fast a processor as possible and as much memory and hard disk space as you can afford. You should also arrange a back-up system: the last thing you need is for your life's work to disappear thanks to a software glitch! You could use an external hard drive, but I prefer backing up to the cloud just to be on the safe side. I use CrashPlan, which automatically detects any added, edited or deleted files and backs up the changes in real time, but there are other similar products out there.
- Subscribe to Lightroom
Adobe Lightroom Creative Cloud is the choice of professionals and serious amateurs for organising and editing their photographs. It only costs around £8 a month (including Photoshop), and it's a very powerful tool, as well as being relatively easy to use once you've mastered the basics. Digital photographs never come out of the camera looking perfect, so it's always a good idea to try and improve the contrast, highlight and shadow areas and anything else you need to. If you're selling through agencies, you'll also need to add titles, captions and keywords (plus any other fields you're asked to fill in), and all that is possible with Lightroom. It's a pain to do for each individual photograph, but you can 'synchronise' any changes you make across a number of pictures, and you only need to do it once. If you've never used it before, I suggest you to do what I did and watch Anthony Morganti's series of free YouTube videos on Lightroom. He takes you through all the functionality, and it's an easy way to learn.
- Start taking pictures
If you're a wildlife photographer, this is just a euphemism for 'spend thousands of pounds on trips to long-haul destinations'! However, you don't have to travel far to take pictures. Whether you're a landscape, portrait, Nature, fashion, wildlife, wedding or sports photographer, there's always something photogenic not far from home, and you simply have to have the enthusiasm (and discipline) to be able to get out there and take more and better shots. Quality and quantity are both important. The quality of your images is ultimately what matters, but even a shot that'll never win a competition might earn you money on a microstock site. I give my shots three stars if they're good enough for Facebook, four if they're good enough to be sold via agencies and five if they're good enough to go on my website.
- Start marketing your work
As a photographer, you have to learn to talk the talk as well as walk the walk. If you want to be taken seriously, you have to cover the basics, which means building a website, printing out business cards and having an active presence on social media. You can't expect to win a bid for a photo shoot if you're still using an old Hotmail address! Personally, I have this website powered by SquareSpace plus a Facebook 'fan page', a YouTube page, a LinkedIn account and a Twitter feed, all of which are printed on the back of my business cards. I post articles on my blog about photography trips, exhibitions and useful techniques (which also appear on Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter), and I tweet and retweet a 'Shot of the week' (which gets fed through to my Facebook account as well).
Yes, but how can I make money?
Microstock agencies are online intermediaries that accept work from photographers and then market those images to potential clients such as creative directors of newspapers, magazines and other buyers. The advantage of using them is that it's 'making money while you sleep', in other words, it's a passive income that you can build over time as you add more and more shots to your portfolio. Some agencies sell a lot of images but with low royalty rates, some the reverse, but here is the list of the ones I've used (in descending order of sales):
Fine Art America
I should mention that not all agencies will accept you, and not all your shots will be accepted by any agency that does, but you shouldn't take it personally. I've had over £5,000 in microstock sales since 2013, but my overall acceptance rate is only 41%! Even if your pictures are accepted, of course, that doesn't mean they'll sell. I've had around 7,000 downloads from microstock sites, but fewer than 2,000 individual shots have ever been sold out of a total of more than 5,000. The rest of them are just sitting there, waiting for a buyer. If you're lucky, though, you take a picture that does go viral, and I've sold my jumping penguin over a thousand times (see above)!
The basic process is similar across all agencies. You add titles, captions and keywords to all your pictures and then export them as JPEG files to upload to each individual agency via their websites or an FTP service using a program like Filezilla. You then typically add the category, country or other data for each of them and submit them for approval. The agencies then approve the ones they like and reject the ones they don't. After that, it's just a question of watching the money rolling in! A useful way of doing that is by downloading an app called Microstockr. All you need to do is to set up your various agencies on the accounts page and then check the dashboard every now and then for any sales you've made. It's very addictive! Sales should come quite soon after each batch is uploaded, but you may have to wait a while for payment. Most agencies have a 'payment threshold' of $50 or $100, which means your first payment (usually through PayPal) might take months to arrive. You'll also need to keep adding more pictures. Buyers tend to sort images according to what's most recent, so you definitely get diminishing returns from your shots, however good they are.
The other thing to say is that, with dozens of agencies and hundreds or even thousands of images, it gets very confusing. As a result, I've created a spreadsheet to keep track of the whole thing. With filenames down the left and agency names across the top, I know if each file has been uploaded ('u'), submitted ('s') or accepted ('y') and how many times it's been sold. I keep a record of the dollar value of all the image downloads on a separate financial spreadsheet. I suggest you do the same.
- Stock agencies
In the good old days, it was much easier to make a living out of stock photography, mainly because the royalty rates were a lot higher. The difference between 'stock' and 'microstock' is simply the average price level. Stock agencies want to differentiate themselves from microstock agencies (and everything else out there on the web) in order to charge a higher price, so they generally ask for exclusive agreements over one to five years and set a higher standard for acceptance. I use Design Pics, and you can see that they sell my images for hundreds of dollars rather than just a few dollars for the microstock agencies. My general strategy is to offer Design Pics the first pick of my pictures before sending the leftovers to all the microstock agencies. (I've also submitted some flower images to flowerphotos and a few marine wildlife shots to SeaPics, but I haven't seen any sales from them so far.) Due to the long sales and reporting cycle, I didn't see my first sale from Design Pics until more than a year after I'd signed up, but sales are starting to trickle in now, so it just takes a bit of patience.
If you're looking for a list of stock agencies, I recommend buying the latest version of Photographer's Market, which is the equivalent of the Writers' and Artists' Yearbook. It has comprehensive coverage of the industry, including helpful articles and a wealth of phone numbers and email addresses for magazines, book publishers, greeting card companies, stock agencies, advertising firms, competitions and more. I suggest buying the Kindle electronic version, and then you can download everything on to your laptop. I did that and then simply emailed every stock agency on the list - Design Pics was the only one to say yes!
If you just want the ego boost of seeing yourself winning a competition, then I suggest you sign up with Pixoto and enter the contests with the lowest number of entrants. It's a peer-to-peer site, and you can organise your own competitions, so there's a very good chance of winning something! That's exactly what I did, and I ended up with the Judge's Award in four competitions. However, there isn't much prestige to something like that, and it certainly doesn't earn you any money. Alternatively, you can scour the 2017 Photographer's Market for competitions, bearing in mind your chances of winning, the cost of entry, the potential prizes and the subject matter. The UK national press is a good place to start, too, and I recently won £250 in Wex Photographic vouchers in the weekly Sunday Times/Audley Travel Big Shot competition.
Putting on an exhibition may seem like a big deal if you've never done it before, but it doesn't have to be expensive or time-consuming. The Norman Plastow Gallery where I started out is cheap, but it's slightly off the beaten path, and you have to man the exhibition yourself, which is obviously impossible for most full-time employees. You realise pretty soon as a freelance photographer that the most expensive item on your tab is often the opportunity cost of NOT doing what you usually do when you take time off. As a tutor, for instance, I could easily have earned £1,000 during the two weeks of my first exhibition, but them's the breaks...
If you're looking for a list of galleries, www.galleries.co.uk is a useful starting point. London is obviously the best place to look, but exhibition spaces there don't come cheap. I recently looked for galleries to use for an exhibition, and the ones in central London regularly quoted me thousands of pounds for a week! Everything is negotiable, though, so don't give up.
I started out with 15 prints at my first solo show, but I also printed out a few postcards and greetings cards. You might not make as much money out of them, but at least you'll get something from punters who can't afford a print. There are some who say that cards are just a distraction, but it's so difficult to tell. I've had exhibitions with and without cards on sale, and it doesn't seem to make much of a difference. However, the main reason for an exhibition is to sell prints, so that should be the focus.
One of the problems you'll almost certainly have is knowing how to price your work. Choosing your favourite shots is easy enough - although getting a second opinion from a friend is a useful exercise - but how much should you charge? I started off at £80 for an A3 print and ended up three years later at £2,000 for a 53" x 38" print, so you'll just have to suck it and see. Andy Skillen suggested a mark-up of two-and-a-half times your printing and framing costs to make sure your cashflow remained positive, but that's just a rule of thumb.
- Photo shoots
Proper professional photographers make most of their money from photo shoots, but clients aren't easy to find. If you're a wedding photographer, I suppose you can put up flyers at various local venues such as churches and registry offices, but, for the rest of us, it's just a question of plugging away, taking as many good shots as we can and putting them online so that as many potential clients can see them as possible. It would be a dream to be able to rely on commissions from wealthy clients who called us up whenever they wanted pictures of something. A photographer told me once about a group of directors who asked him for a picture of five hippos in a lake looking at the camera. He sent them all the hippo shots he had, but they weren't happy. In the end, he told them if they didn't want to compromise on the picture, then they'd have to send him on an all-expenses-paid trip to Zambia for a week. Which they did! He got the shot within a couple of days and then spent the rest of the trip taking pictures for himself! That sounds like a nice way to make a living, doesn't it? However, until we're well established enough with a good enough reputation to get those kinds of jobs, all we can do is keep on snapping and use the networks that we have. I've worked for a milliner, a local councillor, a businesswoman and others, but all my photo shoots have come from friends of friends or personal contacts. I'm not very good at networking - and it's certainly not something I enjoy unless it happens naturally - but it's very important in this business.
I work as a private tutor as well as a photographer, so I guess it was an obvious fit to offer photography lessons. It's finding the students that's the real problem, though. One of my tuition agencies provided me with a couple of clients, while the rest came from connections I made at exhibitions and talks. You never know when you might meet just the right person, so it's important to keep a few cards in your wallet just in case.
If you don't mind public speaking, then giving a slideshow and talk on photography is an enjoyable way to earn some pocket money. Camera clubs and other groups won't generally pay more than £100 (if anything at all!), but it's also a useful chance to take along a few prints to sell and to hand out business cards. I got started after meeting a very nice woman on an Antarctic cruise, and I've now given talks at her branch of the WI, two camera clubs and a local library. If you want to be proactive about it, I'd simply Google camera clubs (or WI branches!) and email all of them to see what happens. As my mum used to say, you have to cast your bread upon the waters...even if it sometimes comes back a soggy mess!
- Photography trips
One final way of making money is to lead photography trips. A lot of photographers do it to supplement their income, and it's a good way to reduce your travel budget. I recently put together a list of tour operators and emailed them all one afternoon to find out if it could work, and I soon received a call from the founder of Gane & Marshall, asking me to lead a trip to Tanzania! I offered my services for free in exchange for the chance to go on an all-expenses-paid photographic safari. Now all we have to do is find at least five people to come on the trip and make it economic. Fingers crossed!
I hope all that was useful. If you have any more questions, please drop me a line at email@example.com. It's not easy becoming a professional photographer, but we can at least take pictures as a hobby while we wait for our big break.
Here's to clicking and dreaming...
The first things you need to know when picking up a DSLR
When you buy (or borrow), your first digital SLR, everything looks different, and it can be a bit worrying. What are all these buttons and dials for? Why is it so heavy? Where do I start? How do I change the shutter speed? All these are very good questions, and this is the place to find the answers!
Before we start, I should mention that I'm a Nikon user, and I have one D800 and one D810 camera body. The other major camera manufacturer is Canon, and they use slightly different terms for each function, but I'll try and include both to make life easier.
Our first job is to cover the basics of photography: exposure and focus. Without understanding those two things, nothing else will make sense!
Your first job as a photographer is to make sure that your images are well exposed, in other words, not too dark or too bright. Photographers talk about the 'exposure triangle', but that's just a complicated way of saying that how dark or light a photograph is depends on three things: the shutter speed, the aperture and the ISO.
The level of exposure is measured in 'stops' or Exposure Values (EV), but what is a 'stop'? Well, if you increase your exposure by a stop, the light is doubled (and vice versa). For example, if you lengthen your shutter speed from 1/200 of a second to 1/100 of a second, your shot will be twice as bright. They try to use round numbers, though, so the gap from 1/60 to 1/125 is obviously not quite right! The maths gets a bit more complicated when the gap is only 1/3 of a stop, but the idea is the same.
The built-in exposure meter in your camera will work out what the best exposure should be, but it has to make assumptions about the world that may not be true. To judge the 'best' exposure, the camera needs a starting point, and that is that the world is, by and large, 18% grey. If it assumes that to be true, then it can set the exposure accordingly. However, anyone who's ever taken pictures of polar bears on the ice knows that that's not always true! In order to make sure the camera is not fooled by very bright or very dark conditions, you need to use exposure compensation. If the scene is especially bright, you can dial in up to one or two stops of positive compensation. If it's especially dark, you can do the opposite. It might take a few test shots to get it exactly right, but that's better than coming home with lots of shots of grey bears!
Shutter speed (or Time Value if you have a Canon)
In the old days, cameras used film, and the shutter speed controlled how long it was exposed to the light in order to take the shot. These days, cameras are digital and have electronic sensors at the back, but the principle is still the same. The longer the shutter speed, the more light reaches the sensor and hence the brighter the image. The shorter the shutter speed, the less light reaches the sensor and hence the darker the image.
The shutter speed is measured in seconds and can be anything from 1/8000 of a second to 30 seconds or more. The amount of camera shake increases with the focal length, so the rule of thumb for general photography is to make sure your shutter speed is no less than the inverse of the length of your lens, eg if you're using a 400mm lens, you should be using at least 1/400 of a second. Lens technology such as Nikon's 'Vibration Reduction' or Canon's 'Image Stabilisation' means that you might be able to get away with a couple of stops slower - ie 1/100 of a second - but that's about it.
The reason why shutter speed is an important setting is that it controls how much (if any) motion blur there is in the image, and that is an artistic decision. Some people like shots of kingfishers catching a fish that look like they're frozen in time, with every single water droplet sharp as a tack. Other people prefer shots of waterfalls shown with creamy torrents of water cascading over them. There isn't a 'right' or 'wrong' answer. Just try both and see what you think.
The aperture is simply the size of the hole in the lens through which light passes on its way to the sensor, and the principle is similar to that of the shutter speed. The bigger the aperture, the more light reaches the sensor and therefore the brighter the image. The smaller the aperture, the less light reaches the sensor and therefore the darker the image. The only thing difficult about it is the numbers, which often have a decimal point in them like f/5.6 or f/7.1. The reason the aperture is not always a nice round number is because it is what you get when you divide the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the hole. Neither of those numbers is necessarily going to be a nice round number, so the result of dividing one by the other certainly won't be!
The aperture is measured in f-stops, which typically start at f/2.8, f/4 or f/5.6 and continue up to f/22 and beyond. A 'fast' lens is one that has a wide maximum aperture such as f/1.4. Photographers like fast lenses as they allow pictures to be taken in low light and offer great flexibility.
The reason why the aperture is such an important setting is that it controls the depth of field, which is the amount of the subject that is acceptably sharp. The human eye is drawn to things it can see clearly, so making sure the subject is sharp and the background is an ideal way to focus the viewer's attention on an animal, say, but a landscape photographer might want his image to be sharp all the way from the boat in the foreground to the mountains on the horizon. Again, there is no right answer; the important thing is to experiment and find what works for you.
ISO (or ASA if you're still using a film camera!)
The ISO used to measure the sensitivity of the film being used, a 'fast' film with a high ISO being more sensitive than a 'slow' film with a low ISO. Now that most cameras are digital, we get the same effect, just with an electronic sensor instead of film. You might think that extra sensitivity is a good thing - and it is - but it comes at a cost. The higher the ISO, the 'grainier' or 'noisier' the image, in other words, the less smooth it is.
ISO is measured in ISO (funnily enough!), which just stands for International Standards Organisation. The lowest value is usually ISO 100, and the highest might be 12,800 or more, although the image quality at that value wouldn't be acceptable to most professional photographers.
Your second job as a photographer is to make sure that the subject of your images is in focus. In the old days of film cameras, there was obviously no such thing as 'autofocus', and focusing had to be done by manually turning a ring on the lens, but today's digital cameras have very good systems for making sure the images are sharp. In using the autofocus system, your job is first of all to choose the correct settings and secondly to make sure the camera is focusing on the right part of the frame.
There are lots of different focus settings, but the basic choice is between single area, shown as AF-S (or one-shot AF for a Canon), and continuous, shown as AF-C (or AI Servo for a Canon). Single area looks to focus on the area of the image under the little red square in the viewfinder (which you can move around the frame manually); continuous does the same but follows the actual subject if it moves. The best version of this on Nikon cameras is called '3D'. The other setting you can change is which button actually does the job of focusing. The shutter button does that on most cameras, but the disadvantage of doing it that way is that the camera stops focusing when you take a picture, which is bad news if you're tracking a cheetah running at 60mph! The alternative is to use 'back-button focusing', which means separating the jobs of focusing and taking pictures. The shutter button still takes the picture, but the focusing is done by pushing a button on the back of the camera. (You have to set this up yourself, but I use the AF-ON button, which I can press with my right thumb.)
Camera guide (based on the Nikon D800)
This guide won't go through every single setting on a DSLR, but it will show how all the main buttons work, not by saying what each one does but by answering the obvious questions. I hope that's the easier way to learn!
(All the numbers used are taken from the diagram at the top of this article.)
How do I switch it on?
That's simple. Just turn the power switch on the top right-hand side (1) to 'ON' (and back to 'OFF' when you've finished). If you turn it to the light bulb symbol, that just lights up the LCD display on top of the camera.
How do I set it to Manual?
There are lots of exposure modes on a camera, such as aperture-priority, shutter-priority and program, but using anything other than manual is a bit like buying a Ferrari with an automatic gearbox - you just don't get as much control (or satisfaction). To select manual, press the 'Mode' button (50) and turn the main command dial on the back right of the camera (31). This allows you to set the shutter speed, aperture and ISO yourself, although I usually set the ISO to 'ISO-AUTO' by pushing the 'ISO' button on the top left of the camera (56) and at the same time turning the sub-command dial (21).
How do I make sure I'm shooting in RAW?
Press the 'QUAL' (for 'quality') button (47) and turn the main command dial until the word 'RAW' appears on its own. The word 'RAW' doesn't actually stand for anything, but everyone writes it that way to show that it's a file format that contains the 'raw' data from the sensor. The alternative is JPEG (which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group), but that's a compressed file format and therefore should not be used. Note that RAW files don't end in '.RAW'. It's just a generic term, so each manufacturer has its own RAW extension, such as Nikon's .NEF.
How do I set the white balance?
Press the 'WB' button 57 and turn the main command dial (31) to whatever is right for the lighting conditions. The icons aren't very easy to see, but the options are:
- Incandescent (ie light bulbs)
- Direct sunlight
- Choose colour temp
- Preset manual
The white balance tells the camera the colour of the light you're working with. It's a bit like working out what colour the curtains are at the cinema. The camera can't tell the difference between something white that's lit by red light and something red that's lit by white light, so the white balance setting just makes sure it makes the right call. If you can't quite see the icons or want to set up a custom white balance or preset, you can always go through the menu system. However, if you're shooting in RAW, you can always change the white balance later on your computer, so don't feel bad about sticking with 'AUTO'!
How do I set the focus mode?
First of all, make sure your lens is not set to 'M', or manual focus, and that the focus mode selector (18) is set to 'AF', or auto focus. After that, press the AF-mode button (17) and at the same time turn the main command dial (31) to choose single area or - preferably - continuous. If you want the 3D option, you press the same button but at the same time turn the sub-command dial (21) until the LCD screen shows '3D'.
How do I set up back button focusing?
Press the 'MENU' button (46), scroll to the menu item with the pencil icon, select 'a Autofocus' and then set 'a4 AF activation' to 'AF-ON only'. Half-pressing the shutter-release button won't work any more, so don't forget to focus by pressing (and holding) the AF-ON button (30) with your right thumb while you shoot.
How do I set the shutter speed?
Half-press the shutter-release button (3) if the shutter speed is not illuminated in the viewfinder or on the LCD screen and then turn the main command dial (31).
How do I set the aperture?
Half-press the shutter-release button (3) if the aperture is not illuminated in the viewfinder or on the LCD screen and then turn the sub-command dial (21).
How do I set the shutter-release button to continuous shooting?
Press the release button next to the 'D800' symbol and turn the release mode dial (48) to 'CH', or Continuous High. The D800 can shoot five frames a second.
How do I move the focus point in the viewfinder?
Turn the focus selector lock switch (34) to the dot symbol (rather than 'L' for lock) and use the multi selector to move the focus point anywhere within the central area of the viewfinder.
How do I check the depth-of-field?
Press the depth-of-field preview button (20).
How do I add exposure compensation?
Press the exposure compensation button (52) and at the same time turn the main command dial (31) to add or subtract as many stops of compensation as you need.
How do I bracket my shots?
Press the 'BKT' bracketing button (55) and at the same time use the main command dial (31) to choose the number of frames (3-9) and/or the sub-command dial (21) to choose the exposure interval (from 0.3 to 1 stop).
How do I shoot video?
You have to use the monitor rather than the viewfinder for this, so first of all turn the live view selector (36) to the film camera icon, press the live view button and then, when you're ready, press the red movie-record button to start (and stop) video recording.
How do I look at my pictures?
Just press the playback button (22) and scroll through the images using the multi selector (32). To zoom in, either use the playback zoom in/zoom out buttons (43, 44) or set up the multi selector centre button to zoom immediately to 100%. This is very useful to check that images are acceptably sharp. To do that, press the 'MENU' button (46), select 'f Controls', then 'f2 Multi selector centre button' and set 'Playback mode' to 'Zoom on/off' with 'Medium magnification'.
To play videos, just press the multi selector centre button (32).
How do I delete my pictures?
Just press the delete button (23). If you want to delete all the pictures on the memory card, the best way is to format it. Press the 'MENU' button, select 'Format memory card' and then select the appropriate card, either the small, thin Secure Digital (SD) card or the thicker, bigger Compact Flash (CF) card.
Thanks to everyone for coming along to the exhibition and the private view. I hope you enjoyed the show!
My latest exhibition was Universal Language at The Framers Gallery (or Artefact), 36 Windmill Street, London W1T 2JT. The show was organised by Gabriel Fine Art and ran from 26 June to 1 July 2017 with a private view on the evening of the 28th. There was a Turkish dancer at the private view, plus an auction of various prints. I was also asked to give a talk about my pictures, but that never happened for some reason. Probably for the best...!
I exhibited three works (see below), the elephant and bear in traditional box frames and the flamingo printed in black and white on a sheet of aluminium. None was sold, but the flamingo will be appearing again in my next exhibition, so fingers crossed!
Thanks to everyone for coming along. I hope you enjoyed the show!
I contributed a few black and white landscape prints to Black, White & Silver at 508 King's Road. The exhibition ran from 24 May to 5 June, and I sold this image of Hong Kong from the Peak (above).
I particularly enjoyed chatting to guests and the other photographers at the private view.
The best safari destination you've never heard of!
Photography is a lonely business, so I was delighted when a friend called Tammy from my old camera club asked me to go on a wildlife workshop in northern Spain. "Spain?" I hear you ask. "What on earth is there to shoot in Spain?" Well, there's a little gem that nobody's ever heard of called Cabárceno. (In case you were wondering, it's pronounced kuh-BAR-thuh-noh). It's official title is the Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabárceno (or Cabárceno Wildlife Park), and it's a Longleat-style safari park that has hundreds of animals from all over the world in large enclosures perfect for taking pictures. You can't actually enter the areas reserved for the animals, but all you have to do is look at the map of the park, drive to the animal you want to see, get out of the car and start taking pictures. There's no waiting around for hours or driving aimlessly in the hope of spotting something - the animals are all where they're supposed to be, and that means the photographic opportunities are endless. I took nearly 4,000 pictures on the first day, which is more than I've taken anywhere else in the world!
The course ran for two days (17-18 June 2017), and it was run by a wildlife photographer called Marina Cano. Tammy told me she was very famous in the industry, and I was certainly impressed by the shots I saw on her website, so I had no problems signing up. I wasn't sure I'd get much from any tuition that was on offer - and that turned out to be the case - but I decided it was worth it just to be able to see so many animals so cheaply without all the hassle of long-haul flights to Africa, India or South America.
Tammy and I flew in on Friday evening, stayed the night at a couple of local guesthouses just outside the park and then met up with everyone at the entrance at 0900 the next day. There were 12 guests, plus Marina, her partner Michael and a couple of assistants called Paco and Luis. Most of the guests were Spanish and spoke little to no English, but we were lucky that a lovely northern couple called Barry and Christine changed their plans and made a last-minute decision to join us. That meant that the four of us from England could drive around in the same van, and we had a lot of fun together.
After spending an hour waiting for everyone to arrive and filling in forms and finding our passports to get tickets for the park, Marina gave us a briefing over coffee at one of the local cafés, telling us what the plan was and asking if we had any questions. The general idea was that she would take us to the best viewing spots, and we would get out and take pictures. Simple as that. She also gave us a bit of 'homework', which was to choose our five best shots for her to review the following day.
On day one, we ended up going to see the gorillas, then the bears, then the lynxes, zebras, cheetahs, lions, lynxes (again!) and finally the ostriches, with the odd giraffe, elephant and Bengal tiger cub thrown in. On the second day, we saw pretty much the same animals but with the addition of a couple of white rhinoceros, a herd of fallow deer and a glorious encounter with a hippo, which opened its mouth incredibly wide almost as soon as we arrived - and then did it again! We also went to see the birds of prey, and that was a good chance to take close-up 'portraits' of red kites, bald eagles, golden eagles, peregrine falcons, vultures and - my personal favourite - the black-chested buzzard-eagle.
The general format was to spend three or four hours taking pictures in the morning, then stop for a long lunch at a restaurant at a little village just outside the park and then go back to take more pictures until around eight o'clock in the evening. The days were pretty long, and we had to cope with a rather unusual heatwave that meant temperatures rose to 33°C at times, so were were pretty tired when we finally got back to the various 'posadas' where we were staying. That made it quite hard to do our homework on the first night, as most of us just wanted to go straight to bed! However, we all managed to produce our five images for the review after lunch the next day, and that was the most educational part of the whole course.
Marina gave some sensible feedback, and I was very impressed with most of the pictures people had taken. Even though we'd all seen exactly the same animals from exactly the same spots at exactly the same time, the quality and variety of the images was amazing! It just goes to show what's possible with a little imagination, and Tammy in particular produced a very creative picture of the two lynx side-by-side that looked just like a pen-and-ink police mug shot! That inspired me to try over-exposing (and under-exposing) my shots that afternoon rather than just taking the same old, same old sunny 'record shots' that didn't have an ounce of emotion in them.
It was a shame we didn't review all the images a bit earlier, as we only had a few hours to practise what we'd learned, but the trip wasn't quite over. We had a free morning on the Monday before our flight in the afternoon, and Barry and Christine kindly offered to drive us round the park in their motor home! That was a real bonus, and we got some great shots of a barnful of Ankole-Watusi cattle and the two white rhino lying side-by-side under a tree.
All in all, it was a great trip, and I thoroughly recommend Cabárceno if you're looking for a cheap and cheerful way to take great pictures of animals you'd never usually see without spending thousands on a long-haul safari. We were lucky with the people we met, and there wasn't much actual 'teaching' from Marina and her team, but that's only a minor quibble. Yes, the workshop cost €295, but the Ryanair flights from Stansted to Santander were only a hundred quid, the Posada Venero and Cabárceno only charged €50-60 a night, and an annual season ticket for the park was only €55, so what better place for a do-it-yourself safari! Can't say fairer than that.
European griffon vulture
1 x lens hood (it fell off into the bears' compound, and they ended up eating most of it!)
"What did you do for your birthday, Nick?"
"I shot 12 tigers."
"Tigerrrrrrr!" shouted our guide, and the driver stomped on the accelerator so hard we were doing 60mph before I knew what was happening. I clung on for dear life as we rounded a 90° bend without slowing down at all, cradling my camera in my arms. After a couple of the most exciting minutes of my life, we came across two young male tigers playing at a water hole...
That was my first experience of tigers in India. Unfortunately, the two we saw were just a bit too far away to get any decent pictures, and we had no more sightings on the trip. That's why I went back a couple of weeks ago to try again.
If you're happy to travel 20 hours to be woken up at 0445 in the morning to spend eight hours in 47°C heat waiting to catch a glimpse of tigers up to 500 yards away, then this is ideal the trip for you! I went with 10 other guests on an Exodus tour called Tigers in Tadoba, led by Paul Goldstein. I'd been on a trip with Paul before, to see polar bears in Spitsbergen, so I knew that he always gives you the best possible chance of taking pictures of the animals. He describes himself as being 'like Marmite' - you either love him or you hate him! - and he's certainly not shy of swearing at you or giving you a withering putdown for getting in his way or making a fool of yourself with your camera! However, he's a great photographer, naturalist and raconteur, and that's exactly what we needed for this kind of trip, considering the rather challenging conditions. In fact, almost all of the guests had travelled with Paul at least once before, so their loyalty is the real proof of his credentials.
'House of Tards' - the place where the idiots on the trip lived
'Mincing' - faffing around (see also 'quincing', which we decided was faffing around for more than 10 minutes)
'Muppetry' - any sort of mistake, particularly faffing around or making a photographic error
'Nonsense' - hors d'oeuvres
'Spaz' - idiot
In the end, we saw around 12 tigers spread over 11 game drives in the course of five-and-a-half days at the Tiger Trails Resort in the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve. We also saw a sloth bear, a variety of spotted, sambar and barking deer and several smaller animals, but the tigers were the main focus. That's something you have to understand before you take this kind of trip. It's not like an African safari where there are so many iconic animals that you can just keep driving around until you see something else. In Tadoba, we were there to see the tigers, and we happily drove past herds of eminently photographable animals in the constant rush to see the star of the show. That means we did spend hours parked up at a water hole or other likely spot, sometimes surrounded by rows of other jeeps and trucks, waiting for a sighting. The roads were bumpy, there was a ton of red dust that got all over your clothes and camera equipment and there was usually very little shade, but the payoff was huge.
I love to take pictures of the big predators, such as lions, cheetahs and leopards, but all those pale by comparison with the tiger. It's the largest of the big cats, and it sits right at the top of the food chain in India. Not even the leopard comes close. There is also something about its orange and black stripes and the gorgeous power and grace of the animal. They do look a bit ungainly trying to climb out of a water hole, but that's just a tiny quibble set against everything else. Our local guide Himanshu Bagde had even written a long article with pictures about 'Maya the Enchantress' in the Indian Times. Maya was one of the tigers we saw, and the article was posted up on the wall of the dining area, so we could all learn a lot more about the animal. All the adult tigers have names, and we saw Maya, Matkasur and Madhur as well as several sub-adult males and females. These 'cubs' are only given names when they separate from their mother.
Our general routine was to have two game drives each day in Suzuki Gypsy 4WD vehicles, the first from 0500-1000 and the second from 1500-1900. We only had three guests in each jeep, but they were still a bit cramped - especially for me when I had to try and squeeze into the front seat with two cameras and an 800mm lens! In between, there was a generous buffet-style brunch from around 1100 onwards, involving omelettes and chapattis made to order, and at around 2030 we all went up to Paul's balcony for a few drinks and what he called 'nonsense' (ie nibbles) before having dinner in the open air. The local Indian food was excellent, particularly the mango lassis and some heavenly chicken satay skewers, and there were even a bowl of chips and one or two western dishes if you were nursing a touch of 'Delhi belly'. Ellie and I celebrated our birthdays on the trip, and we were both given cakes with relighting candles - a special gift from Paul! The accommodation was also very comfortable. I had a suite that was about five times the size of my studio flat in Putney, which consisted of a bedroom, a bathroom and a shower room. It also had a staircase leading up to the first-floor balcony. That was handy on the first night, when I spent half an hour before dinner taking shots of what was a gorgeous harvest moon.
The balcony was outside Andy and Eddie's room, and we all ended up taking pictures together. They needed a bit of help with their photography, so I gave them a few tips over the first few days, and we regularly ended up in the same jeep for the game drives.
The highlight of the whole trip for me was the first sighting of Maya in the water hole, mainly because of the pictures I was able to take. I happened to overhear Paul suggest underexposing the image by a full stop, so I experimented with one and then two stops of exposure compensation and then played around with the images in Lightroom. I was delighted with the results.
I should perhaps explain that this looks nothing like what we actually saw in real life, but then that's the point, isn't it? Photography is art, and every artist's challenge is to come up with something new, challenging and dramatic. Paul called it 'top work, and it's the first time I've taken a photograph that might be classed as a 'fine art' print. My whole reason for going to Tadoba was to get a five-star picture of a tiger, so job done!
If you prefer a more 'realistic' shot of what the tigers actually looked like, here's one I took at the same water hole under the same conditions, but this time without underexposing the image.
You can see that the images are completely different. I like the low-key portrait, but it depends what you prefer. The second shot is just a different way of approaching the same problem. Paul actually saw me playing around with it on my laptop one lunchtime and was kind enough to help out. He's exceptionally good at knowing how to improve an image in Lightroom, and with this one he completely changed the crop to show the tiger in the corner of the image with the 'wake' in the background. I had originally left the subject smack bang in the middle of the frame, but people generally don't like that, so this is a much more appealing image. Paul also helped optimise all the other settings in Lightroom to make subtle changes to the colour of the water and the tiger and get the most out of the picture. I've only been a photographer for four years, so I guess it might take another 20 for me to reach his level of confidence and expertise! Here's another of the pictures he helped me edit.
The joy of this image is that it shows a tiger walking straight towards the camera. It's very rare to get that perspective in wildlife photography, as the animals naturally want to run from danger, but I just happened to be in a jeep that parked only five yards from the pile of branches where a tiger was sleeping, and - after a good hour's wait! - it finally emerged.
We were lucky in seeing so many tigers, but one of the other highlights was seeing a sloth bear. They're very shy, and sightings are very rare, but we were lucky enough to see one digging out a termite mound just by the side of the road. The sloth bear is the animal on which Kipling based Baloo in The Jungle Book, and it's a small, black omnivore weighing around 300lbs.
The sighting lasted around 20 minutes, and the shot I really wanted was this one of the animal digging with a puff of earth shooting backwards. I thought I'd missed out, but I found out when I was looking through my images back at the lodge. The face is not quite sharp, but I'm trying to take more 'action shots' than simple portraits these days, so I was pretty pleased - especially considering that both Paul and Charlie said it was the best sighting of a sloth bear they'd ever had.
I guess the obvious question is, "What did you do when there weren't any animals around?" Well, if you happened to be travelling with Paul, he'd probably be playing the lyric game or challenging you to work out four or five cryptic clues to the names of Tube stations, but there was still wildlife to see, particularly at a local lake. We went on a couple of game drives to the 'buffer zone' between the national park and the neighbouring farmland, and we managed to find a rather picturesque lake with a relatively large number of birds. While we were waiting for reports of a tiger, we simply took pictures of the birds. There were lots of different kinds of egrets, storks and pond herons, and I took the opportunity to play around with the kind of underexposed settings that had worked so well with the tiger in the water hole.
The other chance we had to take pictures was during the break in the middle of the day. Indian bureaucracy is a nightmare, and we weren't allowed to enter the park between 1000 and 1500, so this was a chance to catch up on sleep, work on my photos or take more pictures, this time of the sunbirds at a tap in the garden. Paul told us about them when he presented his 'shot of the day' one evening, and, for the rest of the trip, there was a regular posse of snappers trying to capture the perfect mid-air close-up.
In sum, then, we were lucky to have so many sightings of the tigers, but I thoroughly recommend the trip if you don't mind a little hardship. If you can stand the heat, the dust, the exhaustion, the illness, the boredom and the insults, you'll have a wonderful time!
1 x sunglasses (scratched irreparably)
1 x cuddly toy tiger (left in overhead locker on flight home)
Bengal tiger (Maya, Matkasur, Madhuri and Chati-Tara plus several cubs)
Indian gaur (bison)
Birds & insects
Asian open-billed stork
Asian paradise flycatcher
Crested hawk eagle
Eurasian collared dove
Grey jungle fowl
Lesser adjutant stork
Lesser whistling duck
Little ringed plover
Paddy field pippet
Red wattled lapwing
White-breasted water hen
As everyone knows, "Those who can, do; those who can't, teach" - but that doesn't stop me trying to do both!
Whatever kind of photographer you are and whatever kind of pictures you take, you always need to pay attention to composition. As an introductory guide (or a reminder), here are a few principles of composition to help you take better pictures. Just make sure you break all of them once in a while!
Rule of thirds
The most common rule in photography is the rule of thirds. The aim of the game here is avoid taking pictures that are too symmetrical. For some reason, the human eye doesn't like that, so it's usually best to place the subject off-centre. The rule of thirds is just one way to do that. Others include the golden ratio or the Fibonacci curve, and you can find them in Lightroom if you really want to, but the rule of thirds is the best and the simplest. The idea is that you imagine that the viewfinder is divided up into thirds - both horizontally and vertically - and place the subject at the intersection of two of those invisible lines in order to give it more impact. The lines also help you to place the horizon when you're taking a landscape shot. If the horizon is in the middle of the frame, it looks a bit static. Instead, try to establish whether most of the interest is in the land or the sky. If you want people to focus on the land, place the horizon on the lower imaginary line; if you want people to focus on the clouds in the sky, place it on the upper one. Just make sure that it's straight!
'The Decisive Moment'
Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French photographer considered a master of candid photography. He pioneered the genre of street photography. The Decisive Moment was the title of a book he wrote, and his idea was that timing is the secret of a good photograph. This is obviously more important in certain types of photography (such as wildlife) than others (such as landscape), but it is still a useful guide to taking any kind of action shot.
Every photograph obviously has a frame, but have you ever tried using a 'frame-within-a-frame'? Photographic frames come in all shapes and sizes, and so do the ones you find in real life. It might be the branches of a tree or a doorway or a window - the point is that it adds depth to a picture and focuses the viewer's attention.
I don't know why people call it 'negative space' rather than just 'space' (!), but the idea is that a picture with a single subject can look more balanced if there is empty space on the other side of the frame. This is particularly useful for portraits if you want to stop them looking like 'passport photos'! It's also a good idea to allow space for a moving subject to move into. It just looks weird if a person appears to be 'walking out of the frame', so try to position the subject around a third of the way across in order to draw the eye into the picture rather than out of it.
Leading lines are supposed to 'lead' the eye of the viewer into the frame - and ideally towards the main subject. They don't have to be straight, but they tend to work best when they are. The obvious examples are railway tracks or a long, straight road stretching into the distance. S-curves can do the same job as leading lines, but they also add dynamism and visual interest to a photograph, particularly if it's a landscape. Again, it might be a road or a railway or even a winding river. All that matters is that the line is roughly in the shape of an S, meandering left and right into the distance.
The rule of thirds and others are meant to stop pictures looking too symmetrical, but sometimes symmetry suits the subject matter. If you have a reflection in the water or a human face, for example, you can't really avoid it, so it's sometimes best to make the most of it. That might mean positioning the line where the water meets the land exactly in the centre of the frame or choosing a square aspect ratio for the picture to enhance the symmetry of a face.
Point of view
I'm a wildlife photographer, and the most important rule of wildlife photography is to get down to eye-level with the animals. It makes a huge difference to the composition and elevates a quick snap to an intimate portrait. Taking pictures at eye level sometimes means getting wet or muddy - especially if you're taking pictures of insects on the ground! - but it's the best way to go. The same applies to portraits, which usually look best taken at eye-level or above. If you get down any lower than that, you take the risk of ending up with a close-up of the model's nostrils!
A photograph is just a static image, so it's sometimes difficult to convey a sense of motion. One way to do that is to use a slower shutter speed in order to create motion blur. Different subjects require different shutter speeds, depending on how fast they are moving, so you might need to experiment a little bit to find that sweet spot between too much sharpness and too little. You could start with 1/4 of a second for a pedestrian walking along the street, but a Formula One car would disappear if you didn't cut that down to 1/250 or slower. If you want to go the whole hog, you might try the 'slow pan'. Panning just means moving the camera from side-to-side to keep a moving subject in the same part of the frame. The 'slow' bit relates to the shutter speed. What you get with a 'slow pan' should be a recognisable subject with relatively sharp eyes but blurred limbs (or wings) and a blurred background. I warn you that this is a tricky business - I once took 1,500 slow pan pictures of guillemots in the Arctic and only kept four of them! - but it's worth it when it works...
Depth of field
Another crucial element in wildlife and other kinds of photography is depth of field. To make sure the focus is on the subject and separate it from the background, you can use a larger aperture (such as f/4 or f/2.8). That will blur anything that's not in the same plane as the subject while keeping the focal point sharp. The eyes are always the most important part of a portrait - whether it's of an animal or a person - and we will always see something as being 'in focus' as long as they look sharp. Depth of field is just as important in landscapes, but what we generally want now is sharpness all the way through the image, so it's better to start with a smaller aperture such as f/11 or f/16.
One of the funny things about the way people see the world is that we seem to like odd-numbered groups of objects more than even-numbered ones. It doesn't really matter why, I guess, but it's an important point to remember when planning something like a still-life shoot. Just make sure you have three or five tomatoes rather than two or four!
Fill the frame
Everyone has a camera these days because everyone has a mobile phone, but one of the problems with using your mobile to take pictures is that it's hard to 'fill the frame'. It's all very well taking a selfie when you're only a few inches from the lens, but trying to zoom in on a distant object or animal is difficult when you only have a few megapixels to play with. It's important to remember here the difference between 'optical zoom' and 'digital zoom'. The optical version is what you get naturally with a DSLR lens when you zoom in by changing the focal length; the digital version is when a phone or a bridge camera fools you into thinking you're zooming in by focusing on a smaller and smaller portion of the sensor. It's great when you look through the viewfinder or look at the back of the camera, but the image quality is a lot poorer. Anyway, the point is that what you really want to do is to make the subject dominate the image by making it as large as possible. If you're taking a picture of a cheetah, you don't want it to be a dot in the corner of the frame! You can always crop the image later using Lightroom or another editing program, but that means losing pixels, so the quality will suffer. It's always better to get it right in camera if you can. You just need to be careful not to chop off body parts in the wrong place when you're taking a portrait. Generally, it's fine to crop in on someone's face so that the top of the model's head is not shown, but it's not a good idea to crop people's bodies at the joints. It just looks odd if the edge of the frame coincides with the ankles, knees, waist, elbows, wrists or neck.
For some reason, taking a picture in landscape format just seems more 'natural' than turning the camera 90 degrees for a portrait, but it's important to choose the 'right' aspect ratio for the image. A photographer once advised me to make sure at least a third of my pictures were in portrait format, but the point is to look at the subject and decide what's best. If there are a lot of horizontal lines, then landscape is fair enough, but if there are more vertical lines - such as tree trunks in a forest - then you should probably choose portrait instead. If you really want to emphasise the length (or height) of a subject, why not try a panorama instead? Different cameras have different set-ups, but the average aspect ratio of a DSLR is 3:2, which doesn't suit all subjects. I've set up a 3:1 template in Lightroom to use for images in which nothing much is happening at the bottom and top of the frame.
When we see a beautiful view, most people's instant reaction is to take a picture, but what we end up with a lot of the time is an image without any focus. Placing an object in the foreground can lead the eye into the frame and give the image balance. A picture taken on the beach, for instance, might be improved by getting down low in front of a weird rock or piece of driftwood.
Speaking of balance, it can be a good idea to have the main subject on one side of the frame and a smaller subject on the other. Again, it's just a matter of what looks most satisfying to the human eye.
Old and new, blue and orange, large and small - all these are contrasts that a photograph can pick up on and emphasise. This kind of juxtaposition can be made the point of an image. Think of an elephant beside a mouse - it's not a picture of an elephant or a picture of a mouse, it's a picture of the contrast between the two.
Patterns, textures and colours
Sometimes, you don't need a traditional 'subject' to make an image visually interesting. There are plenty of patterns in Nature or in the man-made environment; the trick is to find them amongst all the surrounding clutter. Whether it's the bark of a tree or paint peeling on a wall, you can sometimes get a very effective abstract image out of it. Black and white images tend to emphasise patterns and shapes, as there is no colour to distract the eye, but colours can form patterns as well - it just depends on the subject and your personal preference.
It's hard to produce a visually striking image if there is no focal point, or if there are too many competing centres of attention. By creating a simple image - in terms of colour and/or composition - you can remove the distractions and focus on what's important.
To increase the focus on the subject of an image, it's a good idea to remove any distractions in the background. It's obviously not a good idea to take a picture of someone with a telegraph pole sticking out of his head (!), but it's easy to pay too much attention to the subject and not enough to the background unless you consciously check the viewfinder. One useful way to reduce the chances of an embarrassing blunder is to reduce the depth of field by increasing the size of the aperture. The traditional way of taking portraits of animals or people, for instance, is to use a 'fast' lens, which means one that has a very wide maximum aperture, and shoot wide open. That reduces the depth of field, thus blurring the background and adding to the impact of the main subject. If you have lights in the background, you can even get a nice effect called 'bokeh', which works well for something like a bauble with Christmas tree lights in the background.
Whatever you're photographing, there are always odd moments of humour to be found. People and animals are usually the best sources, but it doesn't really matter what the subject is. If there's a visual joke to be made, why not have a go? I laughed when I saw these penguins together on South Georgia. It looked as if the female was confused by the rock. Was it an egg she was supposed to hatch, or was it just a rock? She spent about five minutes looking at it and examining it before the male came up and said something like, "Come on, darling. It's just a rock..."
Breaking the rules
Having said all that, it's important to break the rules once in a while. Rules tend to set expectations, so breaking them can make an image seem fresh and original. Why should the horizon be straight? Why should we see the whole face rather than just half of it? Why should the sky start two-thirds of the way up the frame? If you can't answer these questions, then why not take a risk? It's a bit like being a painter: you have to be able to follow the rules before you can break them!
If you'd like to know more or want to book a photography lesson with me, then please get in touch.
I was surrounded by 70 women. It was Heaven...!
I gave a talk to the SW19 Women's Institute last night at the Wimbledon Village Club. I met a lovely lady called Sally on my trip to the Antarctic last year, and it was she who invited me to speak. I took along a few prints, greetings cards and other promotional materials for people to look at in the interval after the real business of the meeting was over, and then I spoke for around an hour.
It was the first time I'd been in front of such a large crowd since I gave a speech at my former tutor's retirement dinner at Christ Church, and it was a great feeling to be on stage again. There were around 70 women in the audience, and they welcomed me with a warm round of applause.
I had prepared a slideshow of around 100 pictures from trips I've taken around the world in the last four years, and I went through them, telling a few stories and focusing on a couple of technical issues that cropped up as I went along. After 45 minutes or so, I opened it up to questions, and half a dozen women asked me about my experiences and what advice I'd give them about equipment and photographic techniques. I walked off to a very generous round of applause, so I hope the audience enjoyed the talk as much as I did!
I sold three greetings cards and two postcards and had quite a few individual chats with people wanting to know more. A dozen people signed up to my mailing list, two enquired about lessons and one might even buy my print of a pig, so thanks again, Sally!
Here are a few comments from the visitors' book:
Thanks to everyone for coming along. I hope you enjoyed the show!
My Wildlife of the World show at 508 King's Road ran from 22-28 November 2016. It was the first time I'd exhibited at the gallery, but the staff were very friendly and helpful and even managed to secure the sale of the Chilean flamingo print on aluminium (above). Thanks, everyone!
Here's what people wrote in my visitors' book: